2020年3月30日至7月31日，British History Online（BHO）开放过一次Preminum资源（开放前需要购买或学校订阅）。随着2021年1月英国进入封锁状态，BHO决定再次开放Preminum内容，阅览期限至2021年4月30日。
The extra 200 volumes now available are predominantly made up of two important series:
the Calendar of Close Rolls, covering the reigns of Henry III to Henry VII (1244 to 1509)
the Calendar of State Papers Domestic, covering the reigns of Edward VI to Anne (1547 to 1704)
Close Rolls record ‘Letters close’ which were issued by the Chancery in the name of the Crown. These letters were ‘usually of an executive nature conveying orders and instructions, and, therefore of a private and personal nature’ (The National Archives, 2020). Because of their nature, letters were ‘issued folded and “closed” by the application of the great seal’ (TNA).
The Close Rolls are records of these letters, initiated by Chancery to create a master version of the letters sent. BHO’s collection covers closed letters issued between 1244 and 1509 in a total of 61 volumes.
The State Papers Domestic are the accumulated papers of the secretaries of state relating to national home (domestic) affairs. They contain information on every facet of early modern government. State Papers took many formats: ‘including private and official letters, musters, reports, commissions and instructions, council orders and correspondence, proclamations, memoranda and draft parliamentary bills’ (TNA, 2020).
BHO’s collection covers State Papers Domestic for the period 1547 to 1704 in a total of 92 volumes.
In both cases, British History Online offers the Calendar of the original records, not the original records. These Calendars were created in the late Victorian period. They provide researchers with a full summary of the contents of the original document. For nearly all purposes these summaries are wholly sufficient for research.
The remainder of the now free BHO content comprises the following eight series:
Calendar of State Papers, Ireland, covering the period 1586-1606, in 13 volumes
Calendar of State Papers, Scotland, covering the period 1547-1588, in 11 volumes
Parliament Rolls of Medieval England, in 1 volume
Calendar of Home Office Papers, George III, covering the period 1760-1775, in 4 volumes
Calendar of Border Papers, covering the period 1560-1603, in 2 volumes
Calendar of the Committee for the Advance of Money, covering the period 1642-55, in 4 volumes
Calendar of the Committee for Compounding, covering the period 1643-60, in 5 volumes
A final series is the Calendar of Patent Rolls, covering the reigns of Henry III, Edward I and Edward II, and the early reign of Edward III (1216 to 1343), which appear in 20 volumes. The Patent Rolls are closely linked to the Close Rolls, being the records of Letters patent (or ‘open’). Volumes for Edward III’s reign are new to BHO and were added in December 2020.
Letters patent were unsealed letters expressing the sovereign’s will on a variety of matters of public interest. BHO’s 20 volumes are the first output in a new project to digitise and publish the Calendar of Patent Rolls up to and including the reign of Henry VII (1509); this project is ongoing.
For more on the Patent (and Close) Rolls, and their usefulness for medieval historians, see this earlier IHR blog post from Dr Adam Chapman of the IHR. （https://blog.history.ac.uk/2018/09/patent-rolls/）
Using all of British History Online for research
If you’re looking to undertake remote research, there’s much on BHO in addition to the newly released Premium Content. Notable collections—of private and secondary sources—that remain permanently free include:
Within our Primary sources collection
House of Commons Journals, 1527-1699, in 13 volumes
House of Lords journals, 1509-1793, in 42 volumes
41 volumes of primary works edited and published by the London Record Society – a particularly rich collection (including diaries and correspondence) on London history from the 15th to the 19th century
Petitions from English Quarter Sessions and House of Lords: transcripts of 2526 petitions covering the period 1577-1799: a series in association with The Power of Petitioning research project at Birkbeck and University College London. Read more about the completed project here (November 2020).
Privy Council Acts, 1552-1631, in 46 volumes
Within our Secondary sources collection
175 volumes of the Victoria County History, covering selected English counties from Bedfordshire to Yorkshire – an essential record for local and regional historians
60 volumes of the Survey of London which, at parish level, provides detailed architectural and topographical studies of the capital’s built environment.
32 volumes of the Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae: the standard authority for identifying the higher clergy of the Church of England from 1066 to 1857
Listings of 30,000 History PhD and other theses awarded by UK and Irish universities between 1901 and 2014. Two sets of records cover History Theses, 1901-1970 and Theses, 1971-2014. A recent guide to using Theses for research is available here; from November 2020, 10,000 Theses (1971-2014) link to the British Library’s EThOS catalogue of digitised theses.（https://blog.history.ac.uk/2020/07/theses-completed-making-the-data-available/）
Within our Datasets collection
The Cromwell Association Directory of Parliamentarian Army Officers: a born-digital dictionary of over 4,000 officers who served in the armies of Parliament during the first English civil war (1642-6)
The returns of the Hearth Tax assessment, covering the City of London (1662), Westminster (1664) and the City of London and Middlesex (1666), in 3 volumes
Within our Maps collection
Single volume maps of London created between 1561 and 1676
Over 100 volumes of the Victorian Ordnance Survey series, including the complete 1:10,560 series and selected areas of the 1:2,500 maps
(Detail of Leake’s Survey of the City After the Great Fire of 1666. One of the scalable maps available on BHO.)
Within our Guides and Calendars collection
Calendar of State Papers, Colonial, America and the West Indies, covering 1574 to 1734 in 41 volumes
Calendar of State Papers, Venice, covering British diplomatic reports from Venice between 1202 and 1675, in 38 volumes
Calendar of the Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, covering the period 1509-1547, in 28 volumes
Subject guides to British History Online
We’ve currently a small but growing set of subject guides to using BHO for the following, written for us by external users of the resource:
Parliamentary History in BHO
Urban History in BHO
Religious History in BHO
Local History in BHO
Biographical History in BHO
We’d love to add some more subject guides to BHO, especially as more people come to the resource for first time. If you’re a historian working in an appropriate field of medieval or early modern British history—and would like to write us something on the following, or something else—please do get in touch: email@example.com:
Key documentary sources, such as State Papers Domestic, Foreign, Close Rolls, and others
Colonial History and the British Atlantic
History of the built environment
Britain’s territories and influence overseas
Government or other aspects of life during specific periods or reigns
British History Online网址：https://www.british-history.ac.uk/
“the many-headed monster”：近代早期英格兰的经济社会史
·Interface and Exchange – Early Modern Studies Conference
·Cambridge Core Seminar on Economic and Social History
·线上系列讲座Economic and Social History of the Early Modern World
·书讯|Living Economic and Social History
·Records of Social and Economic History